Water, Sanitation, Hygiene

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INTRODUCTION

Clean water is essential to human survival in all environments. This is especially true for stressed populations in post-disaster, post-war, and/or impoverished situations. Since lack of water is one of the principal causes of death among refugee populations and a reliable source of water is needed for community development, the provision of clean drinking water is a crucial task not only for emergency responders but also for development planners. Water collection, storage, treatment, and transportation analysis must be conducted.

KEY RESOURCES

STAR-TIDES is working to provide a useful database of information for inexpensive, sustainable infrastructure that can be supplied to emergency situations and development scenarios with minimal transportation costs. Towards this end, a Dutch non-profit organization named Akvo has created a website (www.akvo.org) that is a great resource for individuals, government officials, and NGOs seeking information on sustainable solutions to typical water (and sanitation) problems.

Akvo.org also catalogues numerous sustainable solutions to typical development problems and emergency situations in its online encyclopedia named akvopedia. In the portal for water, it exhaustively lists available technologies for:

  • sourcing
  • lifting and distribution
  • storage and recharge
  • treatment & testing
  • use of water

All water treatment and water supply devices that are listed have a description, picture, and information on various pros and cons. There is a comparably detailed portal for sanitation.

In addition, the akvopedia site has a section labeled Organizations Portal that divides organizations interested in water/sanitation into: NGOs, government organizations, knowledge and research organizations, funding organizations and commercial companies. Each listing has a URL to follow.

Also on akvopedia is an Approaches Portal that helps walk through:

  • Product/service development (how to decide if a technology or business plan is appropriate, sustainable, etc
  • Service delivery approaches (community controlled vs. private enterprise, etc.)
  • Financing
  • Promotion/Demand stimulation (use of media and market development), and
  • Support systems/Enabling environment (legislation, public-private partnerships, etc.)

In sum, by going to the Akvopedia page, an individual or organization requiring water resources can:

  • Customize a water program by choosing from the various options under the water portal categories to suit their individual needs.
  • Identify other organizations that could might have mutual interests, and
  • Get ideas about business models, financing, technical assistance, etc.

OTHER RESOURCES

Other helpful organizations (not yet listed on the Akvo portal) are:

Aquaya Institute
They focus on reducing the global burden of waterborne disease across three fields: technological development, delivery models, and impact measurement. Specifically see their work on water refill business-in-a-box that can help small businesses deliver safe water. http://www.aquaya.org
Lifewater International
A Christian non-profit organization supporting the empowerment of communities in developing countries to gain safe water, sanitation and personal hygiene. http://www.lifewater.org
Safewater network
Founded by a group of passionate and globally-minded business and civic leaders and philanthropists, Safe Water Network brings together philanthropy, academia and the private and public sectors to develop, optimize, validate, and implement viable water solutions that provide safe drinking water to the world's poor.
http://www.safewaternetwork.org
Global Water Challenge
“…A coalition of 24 leading organizations creating a global movement of transformational change around water and sanitation. GWC focuses on collaborative learning, connecting leaders, and investing in sustainable, scalable and replicable projects.”
http://www.globalwaterchallenge.org/home/
WaterAid
An international charity organization working towards the universal provision of safe and clean drinking water.
http://www.wateraid.org/
Global Water Fund
“…a Global Water Consultancy that provides solutions to government and business with regard to the growing global water crisis. The Global Water Fund facilitates partnerships between senior government officials and the business community in order to achieve commitments and action towards vital water resources.”
http://www.globalwaterfund.com/home_page.html
The Sphere Project
When providing support to disaster victims, refugees, and other displaced populations, The Sphere Project is a good resource that offers common standards used by the international community. Water and sanitation are considered to be “critical determinants for survival” in the minimum standards of disaster response, and so meeting these needs is particularly important. TIDES highly recommends that those involved in humanitarian and relief operations become familiar with the Sphere Standards available at the above link.
http://www.sphereproject.org

PRIVATE INDUSTRY

Technical Considerations and planning factors common to water solutions are:

There are several variables that need to be considered before choosing an appropriate water technology. The most basic considerations that are relevant in all different environments are below:

Sources

  • Wells
  • Fog Water Collection
  • Surface Water
  • Rainwater Harvesting
  • Springwater

Lifting and Distribution

  • Hand Pumps
  • Powered Pumps
  • Gravity Distribution

Storage and Recharge

  • Storage of Harvested Rainwater
  • Tank or Bladder
  • Groundwater—Sand Dam
  • Groundwater--recharge

Treatment

  • Filter (micro, ultra, nano)
  • Chemical Treatment
  • Boiling/Pasteurization
  • Solar/UV Disinfectant
  • Reverse Osmosis
  • Large Scale Commercial system

Use of Water

  • Irrigation
  • Pond Farming
  • Sanitation
  • Drinking

Cost

  • Upfront (Largest Model)
  • Cost/liter over life of active ingredient (Largest)
  • Upfront (Smallest Model)
  • Cost/liter over life of active ingredient (Smallest)

EQUIPMENT PROVIDERS (BY CATEGORY)

Each link will lead you to a new page that lists shelter solutions under these broad categories. (Note: TIDES does not endorse any specific products or stores, nor are we responsible for the content on the links.)

Equipment Providers

  • Individual or Household Use Filtration Projects
  • Large Group Use Filtration Projects
  • Chemical Applications/Projects
  • Testing and Instrumentation
  • Storage/Pump Products

Individual or household use filtration projects/product

Mirage Water Maker
http://www.miragewatermaker.com/
CHB Infrastructure, Technology and Marketing Group, LLC.
http://www.chb-tech.com/
Lifesaver USA
http://www.lifesaverusa.com/index.htm
LifeStraw
http://www.vestergaard-frandsen.com/lifestraw.htm
Scan Water
http://www.scan-water.com/products.php?katid=1
ElementFour - Watermill
http://www.elementfour.com
B. David Company
http://www.bdavidwater.com/Products.html
TATA Swach
http://www.tataswach.com/
SteriPEN
http://www.steripen.com/
Aquagenex
http://www.aquagenex.com/
Pure Hydration
http://www.bwtechnologies.com/
Seldon Technologies
http://www.seldontechnologies.com/
Vestergaard Frandsen
http://www.vestergaard-frandsen.com/lifestraw.htm
MobilePower International
http://www.mobilepowerintl.com/
MSR
http://www.cascadedesigns.com
Hyflux
http://www.hyfluxconsumer.com

 

Life Giving Force Family Water Products
http://www.lifegivingforce.com/lgf-rr-series

 

Large group use filtration projects/products

JOSAB International AB
http://www.josab.com
Global Water Group, Inc.
http://www.globalwater.com
Mobile Power International
http://www.mobilepowerintl.com/products.html
World Water Solutions
http://worldwatersolutions.com/index.php
Air-Water Corporation
http://www.airwatercorp.com/
World Water and Solar Technologies
http://www.worldwatersolar.com/
Trunz Water Systems
http://www.trunzwatersystems.com/
LMS World Water Treatment
http://www.lms-water.com/fr/accueil.php
Cardinal Resources
http://www.cardinalres.com/index.html
PlayPumps International
http://blog.playpumps.org/how-the-playpump-system-works/
Spectra Water Makers
http://www.spectralandbased.com
Meckow
http://www.meckow-international.com
Norcan Water Resources
http://www.norcanwater.com/index.html
Conteno
http://www.conteno.com

Chemical applications/products

Reltex APAICS Water Programme (Bacsan)
http://www.aipacs.com/reltex_aipacs_water_programme/s/1775d8fdf8e55435195ef97b3495a952
Hydrachem
http://www.hydrachem.co.uk/
Aquatabs
http://www.aquatabs.com/
Water Development Program
http://www.waterdevelopmentprogram.org
Potable Aqua
http://www.potableaqua.com/index.shtml
Solar Solutions
http://www.solarsolutions.info/main.html
Chlor-Floc
http://www.campingsurvival.com/milwatpurtab.html
North Star Devices, Inc.
http://solarcooking.wikia.com/wiki/North_Star_Devices
Developed by Dale Andreatta
http://solarcooking.org/pasteurization/puddle.htm
Safe Water Systems
http://www.safewatersystems.com

Foundations/ Research Groups

Cardinal Resources
http://www.cardinalres.com/index.html
Play Pump - for Kids
http://blog.playpumps.org/home/
Global Water Challenge
http://www.globalwaterchallenge.org/home/
WaterAid
http://www.wateraid.org/
Global Water Fund
http://www.globalwaterfund.com/home_page.html
Solar Powered Water Systems, assistance
http://www.sunfire.co.za/custompage/view/12500903115

Testing and Instrumentation

Global Water Instrumentation
http://www.globalw.com/
Global Water Group
http://www.globalwater.com/
Innovative Water Technologies
http://www.innovativeh2o.com/productSunspring.htm

Storage/pump products

Scan Water
http://www.scan-water.com/products.php?vareid=76 and http://www.scan-water.com/products.php?vareid=95
Q Drum
http://www.qdrum.co.za/
Safe Water Systems
http://www.safewatersystems.com

NGO's

Charity Water
http://www.charitywater.org/

MAC Water Technologies- AquaDrop Water Treatment System

Revolutionary, Patent Pending, All-Naturally Powered, Water Treatment System “AquaDrop”
The concept for the AquaDrop is simple, but the impact can be life saving. Put a hose into any non-salt water supply, such as a lake, a river or a well. The AquaDrop produces filtered and disinfected safe drinking water using naturally produced power. Power sources available can be solar, wind, man-powered turbine, back-up generator, or back-up electric grid.

English

Hydration Technology Innovations- HydroPack

How it works
The HydroPack is simple to use. Just place the pouch in any water source and it will self hydrate. The pouch itself is the forward osmosis membrane filter that allows the pouch to draw in water and reject even the harshest contaminants. The pouch will hydrate in approximately 10 hours. Once hydrated, insert a straw through the pouch or simply cut the corner off to consume. This self hydrating water filter pouch is the simplest way to prepare for any situation where clean drinking water becomes compromised.

English

First Water Systems- Water Purification Systems

First Water provides a complete line of emergency water purification and permanent water purification systems to hospitals and healthcare organizations, government agencies, universities and colleges, and the emergency management industry. Their line of equipment is capable of producing potable water from micro-biologically contaminated fresh water sources at rates of 60 gallons per hour to 1,200 gallons per hour. Solar powered water filtration systems are available for greater deployment flexibility.

Undefined

World Water Solutions

A Sustainable, Durable, Cost-Effective Solution
The DR water filtration system solves many of the problems that have historically faced new construction and reconstuction projects. It is a unique in that it is entirely built, assembled and tested before leaving our factory, unlike many other systems that are stick built or assembled
on-site. Our system arrives on-site ready to run, often installed and fully functional within a matter of hours.

Undefined

Rain Catchers LLC

Rain Catchers provides filtration-to-potable capabilities with UV, micron, and dual sediment filtration systems. These systems combine with solar power and pumping from any water source, or from Rain Catchers Water collection and containment cisterns. Rain Catchers provides innovative technology in water harvesting that is flexible, cost effect, sustainable, and empowering.

English

How to provide clean water in rural areas: an example from Vietnam

Despite Vietnam’s significant economic growth in recent years, there continues to be a gap between urban and rural areas when it comes to access to clean water and hygienic sanitation facilities. Many poor households in rural areas still do not have access to clean water or to a toilet. During one of our earlier field visits for the Red River Delta Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RRDRWASS) project which began almost 10 years ago, I was struck by what a lady from a community told me.

English