Shelter, Heating/Cooling and Lighting

INTRODUCTION
Stressed populations in post-disaster, post-war and/or impoverished situations will likely need to protect themselves from harsh weather conditions, especially if their homes have been destroyed. Heat strokes and hypothermia often kill more people than the actual earthquake, hurricane, or other disaster. Providing the victims with the basics of water, shelter, food, and medical services can help solve many of the factors that lead to such suffering, but in this section we also highlight specific technologies that can help combat the harsh weather.  At the same time there is no universal solution.  What’s needed in Andean villages after winter earthquakes probably will not be appropriate for post-hurricane relief in the tropics.

 

KEY RESOURCES
STAR-TIDES is working to provide a useful database of information for technologies that can be supplied to emergency situations and for long-term development in order to help those suffering from extreme temperatures.
The Sphere Project (http://www.sphereproject.org) is a good resource that offers common standards used by the international community, when providing support to disaster victims, refugees, and other displaced populations. TIDES recommends that those involved in such operations become familiar with the Sphere Standards available at the above link. Equipment that can help with heating/cooling needs is considered an NFI (non-food item) and the Sphere Project lists many important cultural considerations to apply when selecting such items.

 

SHELTER
Whether in post-disaster, post-conflict or general conditions of impoverishment, shelter is one of the most basic human needs. That said, determining data requirements can be daunting. Each environment requires a combination of shelter options to provide housing that serves multiple functions, including protection from the weather and other natural elements, provisions for varying numbers of residents and other context-specific needs based on the length of time the shelter is needed, transportability, energy efficiency, etc.
Meeting such environment and usage-specific shelter needs in rapid response and emergency situations can be difficult tasks especially in complex operations involving diverse military and civilian providers of aid and security. To encourage an effective mix of shelter solutions in post-disaster, post-conflict and impoverished conditions, STAR-TIDES is compiling information about technologies and infrastructures that may be used in various circumstances, and providing introductions to other information sources.

 

KEY RESOURCES
  • Architecture for Humanity(http://www.architectureforhumanity.org/about) is a nonprofit design services firm founded in 1999. Architecture for Humanity provides a range of design and construction administration services to partners and clients through a global network of design, development and construction professionals with local expertise and knowledge.
  • Shelter Centre(http://www.sheltercentre.org) is an international nonprofit organization devoted to the provision of resources and information regarding sustainable emergency shelter needs around the world. It supports the humanitarian community in its efforts to provide aid in post-conflict and post-disaster situations. To view the full database of providers, a free login/password is required. The website also has a listing of timely news and events regarding humanitarian shelter provision.
  • The Sphere Project(http://www.sphereproject.org) is a good resource that offers common standards used by the international community when providing support to disaster victims, refugees, and other displaced populations. Shelter is considered to be a “basic requirement” for sustaining the lives and dignity of stressed populations. Sphere provides detailed standards for shelter development within the humanitarian relief and assistance arena. TIDES highly recommends that those involved in such operations become familiar with the Sphere Standards available at the above link.
OTHER RESOURCES
The following is a list of other resources that provide helpful information about shelters:
Hexayurt Project: A long-term shelter option requiring limited resources and buildable by hand in post-conflict or post-disaster situations. The Hexayurt is an open-source design and can be made with a variety of components. http://hexayurt.com/
Builders Without Borders: International network of ecological builders who advocate the use of straw, earth and other local, affordable materials in construction. http://www.builderswithoutborders.org/
Natural Building Network: Non-profit association promoting natural building principles, materials and practitioners worldwide. http://www.naturalbuildingnetwork.org
Humanitarian Bamboo: Project which aims to educate aid workers about bamboo construction. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21153630/Humanitarian-Bamboo-a-manual-on-the-humanitarian- use-of-bamboo-in-Indonesia
Emergency Items Catalogue, ICRC 2009: The catalogue aims to standardize the selection and procurement of relief items during emergency situations. http://procurement.ifrc.org/catalogue/
Oxfam and IFRC’s Plastic Sheeting Field Guide: To educate aid workers about the use of plastic sheeting in emergencies. http://www.plastic-sheeting.org/#GUIDELINES
UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies (see page 221): Stresses the importance of pre-emergency planning as well as planning throughout a crisis. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/46a9e29a2.pdf
United Nations Tent manual: Guide to the use and logistics of family tents during humanitarian assistance. http://www.plastic-sheeting.org/ref/tents.pdf

 

PRIVATE INDUSTRY
Each link will lead you to a new page that lists shelter solutions under these broad categories. (Note: STAR-TIDES does not endorse any specific products or stores, nor are we responsible for the content on the links.)
Equipment Providers
  • Inflatable
  • Local materials (Sustainable/Renewable Buildings)
  • Rigid Structures
  • Tents
  • Tarps
Planning factors common to all shelter solutions are:
  • Climate conditions-Can it withstand hot, cold, wet, dry climates? To what limits of heat, cold, wind, rain, snow, etc. is it certified?
  • How long can it last under ultra violet (UV) exposure?
  • Can it be reassembled, mosquito netted, lined, etc?
  • Insulation- Is it UV treated? Is it resistant to wind, rain, insects?
  • Are materials reusable?
  • Operator training/difficulty of upkeep
  • Maintenance (man hours/day)
  • Is it cost effective?
  • Is it easy to assemble/Does it require specialized tools?
  • What is the shape and size?
  • Transportability: Can it be moved or dismantled easily?
 
INFLATABLE SHELTERS
List of Inflatable shelter providers:
Covertex: http://www.covertex.co.nz
J B Roche: http://www.jbroche.com
Mohab: http://www.mohab-air.com
Southern Inflatables: http://www.southerninflatables.net

 

LOCAL MATERIALS (REUSABLE/SUSTAINABLE SHELTERS)
List of local material providers:
California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture: http://calearth.org
Earthbag Building: http://www.earthbagbuilding.com
Hesco Bastion Ltd: http://www.hescobastion.com
Natural Building Network: http://nbnetwork.org/
OK OK OK Productions: http://www.okokok.org
Strawbale: http://www.strawbale.com/
Tesinma: http://www.tesinma.com/shelter.html

 

RIGID STRUCTURES
List of rigid structure providers:
World Shelters: http://worldshelters.org/home
3S Scandinavian Shelter System: http://www.3sgroup.no
Aganto: http://www.aganto.co.uk
Corimec Italiana SPA: http://www.corimec.com
D&D FRB Inc. http://www.dnd-frb.com
Exup, Inc. http://www.exupinc.com
Triangular Integrated Structures: http://www.DeployableGeoShelters.com
Koma Modular Construction: http://www.koma-modular-construction.czechtrade.us
ModSpace: http://www.modspace.com/services
Nuhcontainer: http://www.nuhcontainer.com
Octagon Europe Ltd: http://www.octagonEU.com
Profil Montage: http://www.profil-montage.se
Quick Quarters: http://www.quickquarters.com
Shelbox: http://www.shelbox.it
Sintex Industries: http://www.sintex-plastics.com
Spaciotempo: http://www.spaciotempo.co.uk
TPI Housing AB: http://www.tpihousing.se
Treyson: http://www.treysan.com.tr
Universal Building Solutions: http://www.ubsbuilding.com
Veldeman Group: http://www.veldemangroup.com
Kwikspace Modular Buildings Ltd: http://www.kwikspace.co.za
Dynamic Shells: http://www.dynamicshells.com
Perfect Shelters: http://www.perfectshelters.com
PKL: http://www.pkl.co.uk
O.B. Wiik AS: http://www.obwiik.no
IADDIC: http://www.iaddicshelters.com
MilSys: http://www.milsys.co.uk
CAMSS Shelters- Portable Shelters:   https://camss.com/

 

TENTS
List of tent providers:
World Shelters: http://worldshelters.org/home
Alaska Structures: http://www.alaskastructures.com
J B Roche: http://www.jbroche.com
Ably Shelters: http://www.tacticalshelters.com
IADDIC: http://www.iaddicshelters.com
Pacific Domes: http://www.PacificDomes.com
Shelter Systems: http://www.shelter-systems.com
Tesinma: http://www.tesinma.com/shelter.html
Element Domes: http://www.elementdomes.com
MilSys: http://www.milsys.co.uk
Hesco Bastion Ltd: http://www.hescobastion.com
Rubb Building Systems: http://www.rubb.com
Al Farooq Enterprise: http://www.sabritextiles.com
Albion Canvas: http://www.albioncanvas.co.uk
Alpinter: http://www.alpinter.com
Amrit Sales Corporation: http://www.amritsales.com
Atara Corporation: http://www.ataracorporation.com
Celina Tent: http://www.gettent.com
Chancel International: http://www.chancelinternational.com/
City Textiles (PVT): http://www.citytextile.com
EuroPlus: http://www.armytents.co.uk
Fra Angelico ltd: http://www.fra-angelico.co.uk
Giulio Barbieri: http://www.giuliobarbieri.it
HSNDS: http://www.dinsons.com
Lamifab Industries: http://www.lamifab.com
Mahavira Tents: http://www.mahaviratents.com
National Tent House: http://www.nationaltenthouse.com
O.R.T. Scientific Industrial Firm: http://www.sifort.co.za
Paramount Tarpaulin Industries: http://www.paramountpak.com
Pavel Šmic- Condor: http://www.spacaky.cz
Reltex: http://www.reltex.net
Rofi: http://www.rofi.no
Saeed Textile: http://www.saeedtextile.com.pk
SG Textiles: http://www.sgtextiles.com
Sharza: http://www.sharza.com
Worldwide Shelters: http://www.worldwideshelters.com
Rotary: http://www.shelterbox.org
Design Shelter, Inc.: http://www.designshelter.com
PKL: http://www.pkl.co.uk
O.B. Wiik AS: http://www.obwiik.no
HOMErgent: http://www.homergent.com
HousAll Systems: http://www.housall.com
Creative Tent International: http://creativetent.us/disaster-events.php

 

TARPS
List of tarp providers:
Tarpaflex: http://www.tarpaflex.com
SG Textiles: http://www.sgtextiles.com
Reltex: http://www.reltex.net
Paramount Tarpaulin Industries: http://www.paramountpak.com
O.B. Wiik AS: http://www.obwiik.no
Lamifab Industries: http://www.lamifab.com
HSNDS: http://www.dinsons.com
Shelter Systems: http://www.shelter-systems.com
Al Farooq Enterprise: http://www.sabritextiles.com
Albion Canvas: http://www.albioncanvas.co.uk
Arun Manufacturing: http://www.pefilms-tarps-ropes.com
Atara Corporation: http://www.ataracorporation.com
Chancel International: http://www.chancelinternational.com/
City Textiles (PVT): http://www.citytextile.com
This the link to our Global Innovation Exchange website page section on Shelter – http://startides.globalinnovationexchange.org/star-tides-infrastructure#shelter

 

HEATING AND COOLING
An essential element of human survival is to live in conditions which support a basic quality of life. Stressed populations in post-disaster, post-war and/or impoverished situations will likely need to protect themselves from harsh weather conditions, especially if their homes have been destroyed. Heat strokes and hypothermia often kill more people than the actual earthquake, hurricane, or other disaster. Providing the victims with the basics of water, shelter, food, and medical services can help solve many of the factors that lead to such suffering, but in this section we also highlight specific technologies that can help combat the harsh weather. STAR-TIDES is working to provide a useful database of information for technologies that can be supplied to emergency situations and for long-term development in order to help those suffering from extreme temperatures.
Planning factors common to all heating/cooling solutions are:
             Costs – initial set-up investment of unit, transportation and upkeep costs.
             Size of equipment – weight and dimensions of packaging and of fully deployed unit.
             Upkeep requirements –attrition of parts? Are any materials reusable?
             Operator training/difficulty of upkeep
             Maintenance (man hours/day)
             Environmental considerations

 

HEATING
Heating is often a major concern, because of the risk of fires, smoke inhalation and pollution, carbon monoxide poisoning, burning of fossil fuels, and deforestation. The International Network on Household Energy in Humanitarian Settingshttp://www.fuelnetwork.org/index.php/Livelihoods-Food-Security is a good resource that discusses physical protection, improved technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel-efficient techniques.
In most cases, the simplest solution is blankets. In addition to water and plastic sheeting, blankets are often the most commonly distributed NFI (non-food item) distributed after disasters. To see the blankets that are used by USAID, visit this link to a pdf file on our website. http://star-tides.net/files/USAID%20Disaster%20Commodity%20Catalog%20REV%2010-2008.pdf

 

OTHER RESOURCES
The following is a link to the Emergency Items catalog for the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (ICRC). This has descriptions of many of the products that the ICRC uses in disaster response situations. For Heating, go to Volume 1, then ‘Household’ and then ‘Bedding and Clothes’ or ‘Stoves and Heaters’ for a listing of equipment that the ICRC commonly deploys. – http://procurement.ifrc.org/catalogue/#1_105
The regulation of body temperature and preventing heat stroke, heat exhaustion, frostbite, and hypothermia is often included as part of the health section in disaster and development-related manuals. The following sites offer helpful information on this topic: http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/winter
 – Center for Disease Control’s recommendations on preparing for and surviving during winter disasters: http://www.who.int
 – the World Health Organization is a great resource for many health concerns and has a good information repository of illnesses caused by overexposure to heat or cold: 
http://www.builditsolar.com/Projects/WaterHeating/water_heating.htm  this site is a great resource for building your own solar water heaters and has instructions and a number of examples. These are applicable to long-term development projects.

 

PRIVATE INDUSTRY

Each link will lead you to a new page that lists lighting solutions under these broad categories. (Note: STAR-TIDES does not endorse any specific products or stores, nor are we responsible for the content on the links.)
HEATING PRODUCTS (List of Company Providers)
Emergency Blanket providers:
  •  http://www.woollenblankets.com/refugee-blankets.html
  •  http://www.simplerlife.com/emresblan.html
  •  http://www.edisastersystems.com/store/blankets-c-106.html
  •  http://disasterstore.com/hoodalrefbla.html
  • http://www.safetycentral.com/woolenblankets.html
Small room/shelter heaters
Mr Heater (Propane) http://disasterstore.com/mrhepoprrahe.html
Stansport Heaters http://www.stansport.com/v2/category.php/18/Heaters.html
Sunup Solar http://www.sunupsolarinc.com/sunupsolarinc_howitworks.html
Solar Water Heaters
Build your own solar water heater http://www.motherearthnews.com/Renewable-Energy/1980-03-01/A-Portable-Solar-Water-Heater.aspx
SolarMate http://www.solarmate.com.my/
Silicon Solar http://www.siliconsolar.com/solar-radiant-heating-kits.html
Large generator powered units
Can be used for field hospitals, backups if normal hospital systems fail, and for other key buildings or command and control shelters
Carrier Rental Systems http://www.hvacportablesystems.com/rental-heaters.html
Temcool http://www.temcool.com/products/packaged_HVAC_units/
Drash http://www.drash.com/Products/SupportEquipment/D1000BHeater.aspx
EMS Innovations http://store.emsinnovations.com/p-255-environmental-control-unit-portable-ecu-5-ton.aspx
Tactical Power http://www.tacticalpower.com/tactical_environmental_control_units.htm
Drake http://www.drakeecu.com/
DRS Technologies http://www.drs.com/Products/SustainmentIndex.aspx

 

COOLING
COOLING PRODUCTS (List of Company Providers)
Sleepbreeze http://www.sleepbreeze.co.uk/
Coleman Tent Fan http://www.coleman.com/coleman/colemancom/detail.asp?product_id=830A352T&categoryid=6000&brand=
O2 Cool Rechargeable Fans http://www.o2-cool.com/rechargeable_overview.php
Large Units
Large units that can be used for field hospitals, backups if normal hospital systems fail, and for other key buildings or command and control shelters
Carrier Rental System http://www.hvacportablesystems.com/case10.htm
Temcool http://www.temcool.com/services/emergency_cooling/default.asp
Drash http://www.drash.com/Products/Trailers/SkidMountedECU.aspx
EMS Innovations http://store.emsinnovations.com/p-255-environmental-control-unit-portable-ecu-5-ton.aspx
Tactical Power http://www.tacticalpower.com/tactical_environmental_control_units.htm
Drake http://www.drakeecu.com/
DRS Technologies http://www.drs.com/Products/SustainmentIndex.aspx
Here is the link to our Global Innovation Exchange website page section on Heating and Cooling –
http://startides.globalinnovationexchange.org/star-tides-infrastructure#heatingcooling

 

LIGHTING
A source of light is very valuable for those areas of the world where there is no central power grid. Lighting can extend working hours and allow children to study after working during the day, and also help adults take care of the household and even run small businesses. Lighting in an emergency and a flashlight (aka torch) is often at the top of the list for supplies in disaster preparedness packs. A source of light is also very valuable for those areas of the world where there is no central power grid. Afghan President Ashraf Ghani once described a light bulb in every kitchen as being one of the most transformative things that could be done in Afghanistan. Lighting can extend working hours and allow children to study after working during the day, and also help adults take care of the household and even run small businesses. Adequate lighting is also important for security, and must be a consideration when establishing camps, whether short-term or long-term refugee camps.
The lights needed after a disaster and the lights for developing world often have similar characteristics, and many products are now using renewable power sources such as solar, wind and water, and combined with low consumption, efficient systems such as florescent and LED lighting. They also can be arranged in diverse configurations because of low heat output and other characteristics. Fluorescent (especially compact-type), halogen and krypton bulbs are still valuable and can be found in many products. Many lights that have renewable energy supplies are also combined with radios and cell phone chargers. These expanded choices and potential combinations enable disaster responders and development workers to provide more effective and efficient lighting for expanded numbers at reduced cost and infrastructure required.
To help and share knowledge, TIDES has put together a list of informative websites on artificial lighting and a list of companies that can provide the equipment.
Recent improvements in, and mass production of, LEDs (light emitting diodes) have had a huge effect on the industry, because LEDs use significantly less power than incandescent bulbs, though the costs often are higher. They also can be arranged in diverse configurations because of low heat output and other characteristics. Fluorescent (especially compact-type), halogen and krypton bulbs are still valuable and can be found in many products.

 

KEY RESOURCES
The Lumina Project (http://light.lbl.gov/light.html) is a great resource on lighting, run by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Their goal is “Cultivating Technologies and Markets for Affordable Low-Carbon Off-Grid Lighting in the Developing World.”
They have a number of features we want to highlight here:
The Sphere Project (http://www.sphereproject.org). Artificial Lighting is considered a non-food-item (NFI) according to the Sphere standards, which are the common standards used by the international community, when providing support to disaster victims, refugees, and other displaced populations. TIDES highly recommends that those involved in such operations become familiar with the Sphere Standards available at the above link. However, the standards are not specific for the lighting category. A recent revision is that Sphere has started pushing the use of light sources other than gas lanterns or candles, but Sphere has no specifications for lighting at camps, other than recommending that these put in place. We did pull this quote from one of the drafts available at their website.
Artificial lighting: lanterns or candles can provide familiar and readily sourced lighting, although the fire risk of using such items should be addressed, as well as battery-powered torches. Consider the use of energy efficient artificial lighting such as light-emitting diodes (LEDS) and the provision of photo-voltaic solar panels to generate localised electrical power sources.

 

OTHER RESOURCES
  • The following is a link to the Emergency Items catalog for the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (ICRC). This has descriptions of many of the products that the ICRC uses in disaster response situations. For Lighting look for Volume 1, then “Power Supply and Equipment” http://procurement.ifrc.org/catalogue/#1_105
  • The UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) lays out its recommendations for placement of lighting in camps in their handbook here http://www.unhcr.org/publ/PUBL/471db4c92.html
  • The Portable Light Project creates new ways to provide renewable power in solar textiles that can be adapted to meet the needs of people in different cultures and global regions. Portable Light helps the world’s poorest people to create and own energy harvesting bags, blankets, and clothing using local materials and traditional weaving and sewing techniques in an open source model. http://portablelight.org/
  • These two articles from USAID’s publication Frontlines highlight some unique efforts in the developing world to make their own lights:
 
PRIVATE INDUSTRY
Each link will lead you to a new page that lists lighting solutions under these broad categories. (Note: TIDES does not endorse any specific products or stores, nor are we responsible for the content on the links.)
  • Solar-Powered
  • Mechanically Powered
  • Battery Powered
  • Large and Specialty use lighting systems (for airports, hospital, large camps, etc)
Outdoor equipment providers often have a large selection of flashlights available and provide the key characteristics on their webpage, such as bulb type, brightness (usually measured in lumens), battery life, weight, and other important factors to consider. If you are purchasing for your own disaster preparedness kit, try using some of these sites to compare products.
(TIDES does not endorse the above stores or products, nor are we responsible for their content or products.)

 

SOLAR-POWERED
Sollatek  http://www.sollatek.com
Bogolight  http://www.bogolight.com
Freeplay http://www.freeplayenergy.com
SunFire  http://www.sunfire.co.za/custompage/view/12500903115

 

MECHANICAL
Freeplay http://www.freeplayenergy.com
Megabrite Flashlights http://megabriteflashlights.com
Garrity Flashlights http://www.garritylites.com/page116.html
LifeGear http://www.lifegearcompany.com/lighting.html
Coleman http://www.coleman.com/coleman/ColemanCom/subcategory.asp?CategoryID=1140

 

BATTERY POWERED
Sollatek http://www.sollatek.com
Sunnight Solar http://www.sunnightsolar.com
Freeplay http://www.freeplayenergy.com
TekTite http://www.tek-tite.com
Litesafe  http://www.litesafe.org
Surefire http://www.surefire.com/
Brunton http://www.brunton.com/
Coleman  http://www.coleman.com/coleman/home.asp
Coast  http://www.coastportland.com/
LifeGear  http://www.lifegearcompany.com/lighting.html

 

LARGE/SPECIALTY USE
TekTite Many types of personal flashlights, and lighting systems for signaling, temporary runways, etc. http://www.tek-tite.com
Clark Masts Systems Limited Company produces many types of telescoping masts that can be used to hold lighting systems. http://www.clarkmasts.com
Portable Masts Integrates many types of masts, lighting, and power systems for emergency use.  http://www.portablemasts.com.au
Setolite  This company out of Germany makes many lighting solutions for constructions and military uses, but this durability may be useful in disaster situations. They have a separate website for military lighting here – http://www.defence-products.com/Products_EN.HTMLhttp://www.setolite.de
Novatech Lighting Company focuses on lighting products for the emergency responder, such as Police, Fire, and Emergency medical services. http://novatechlighting.com
Pelican produces numerous medium-sized LED solutions and LED flashlights.  http://www.pelican.com/lights_category_aalg.php
Carmanah Solar Combines solar power and LED lighting for various applications including airports, marine, traffic, and general outdoor lighting.  http://www.carmanahsolar.com
Coast http://www.coastportland.com/
Naps Systems http://www.napssystems.com/
Here is the link to our Global Innovation Exchange website page section on Lighting –
http://startides.globalinnovationexchange.org/star-tides-infrastructure#light